Panel #1 Struggle, Resistance and Healing Among Indigenous Children, Families & Communities in Northern California Moderator: Dr. Kishan Lara-Cooper (Nererner / Natinixwe) Walter Lara Sr. (Yurok) Dr. Rose Soza War Soldier (Mountain Maidu/Cahuilla/Luiseño) Other presenters (TBD)
Self-worth, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and identity can thrive when children are exposed to the journeys of their parents and grandparents to protect and preserve their Indigenous way of life. While alarming social indicators such as high rates of alcoholism, suicide, and violence are significant in the lives of Indigenous children; these social indicators should not dictate indigenous identity. Consequently, this forum discussion will share themes from a local book project developed to expose Indigenous youth to the resistance and resiliency of their ancestors while speaking to the growing field of Indigenous and Native American Studies, related interdisciplinary fields, educators of Indigenous youth, and professionals who work with Indigenous children, families, and communities. Themes include 1) Worldview, Epistemology, History and Healing; 2) Testimonials of Resistance, Resiliency, and Advocacy; and 3) Next Steps to Healing and Awakening.
Panel #2 Improving Success, retention and Overall Experience of Native American Students Tamara Cheshire Ed.D. (Lakota), Professor, NAS Sacramento City College, Anthropology Sierra College & Sacramento State Ricardo Torres, M.A. (Winnemem), Counseling Faculty, Emeritus Professor, California State University, Sacramento Molly Springer, Ed.D. (Cherokee/Osage), Dean, Equity and Student Success Sacramento City College
Improving success, retention and the overall experience of Native American students, at all levels of education is a critical goal across the State of California and the Nation. The Inter-segmental Native Pathways Committee is a Sacramento based work group made of Native faculty, staff, administrators, community members, and students from organizations including the Los Rios Community Colleges, Sacramento State, University of California-Davis, Sacramento City Unified School District, San Juan Unified School District, the California Tribal College, Sierra College and the Educational Directors of several local tribes.The Inter-segmental Committee meets monthly at different campuses to discuss pathway designs for Native students and solutions to improve success, retention, and the overall experiences of Native students in higher education. The Inter-segmental group, from which this proposal derives, has focused attention upon creating strategies, improving policy, and developing programs that are co-created and co-funded between organizations involved with the committee to support Native students in higher education.This panel will showcase our collective work thus far, examples of how best to start this type of collective, and our future plans.
Panel #3 California Indigenous Peoples: Telling our Stories from Creation to 21st Century Chair: James Fenelon (Dakota-Lakota), Professor at CSUSB, Director of Indigenous Peoples Studies Matthew Leivas (Chemehuevi), Director, Chemehuevi Cultural Center (and Salt Song Project) Gregg Castro (Ohlone),Board Member of CIC, Cultural Representative Joseph Giovannetti (Tolowa Dee-ni'), Professor Emeritus HSU, Council at Smith River
This proposed panel on California Indian peoples is to tell the histories of and by California Natives – reflecting histories and current Indigenous perspectives, that include creation stories, communities before and as Europeans arrived, the Mission system, the U.S. genocide period, suppression into 20th century, survivance and 21st century revitalization. Focus of the panel will be on establishing a continuity rather than isolated periods of Native Nations in California.
Panel #4 California Tribal College: Empowering Our Communities Through Tribally Controlled Education Billie Jo Kipp, PhD (Blackfeet Nation), President, CTC Cammeron Hodson, PhD(c) (Wilton Rancheria), Provost & Dean of Academic Affairs, CTC Crystal Blue, MA (Ione Band of Miwok Indians), Director of Institutional Development, CTC
There is currently an intense development underway for a tribal college in California. While California holds the largest Native population in the United States, there is no tribally-controlled college in our State. The California Tribal College (CTC) will put education in control of our tribes and empower our Nations and people through a culturally-nurturing educational experience. The CTC is specifically designed to meet the unique needs of Native students through infusion of cultures, languages, and tribal values; and will create opportunities for our people to grow and thrive by engaging with their communities through the pedagogy of Indigenous knowledge. This interactive workshop focuses on the need for and development of the California Tribal College. It provides empirical data on the lack of access to higher education for California Natives, the empirical support for tribal colleges, and engages in community dialogue on ways the CTC can assist tribal communities in nation-building.
Panel #5 California Indian Museum and Cultural Center’s Tribal Youth Ambassadors: Decolonizing Education Nicole Lim (Pomo), Executive Director, CIMCC Christina Tlatilpa Inong (Nahua & Tlaxcaletc), Program Specialist, CIMCC Jayden Lim (Pomo), TYA Pauline Beltran (Pomo/Lake Miwok), TYA Maleah Espinosa (Navajo/San Idelfonso Pueblo), TYA Brandon Schmidt (Pomo), TYA
This Q & A panel comprises of the California Indian Museum and Cultural Center’s(CIMCC) executive director and Tribal Youth Ambassadors (TYA) will explore the driving forces of tribal youth leadership: cultural connectivity, education, and community activism. Our award winning program connects Native youth ages 9 to 24, with tribal adults and elders in structured learning activities to address tribal community issues. This film screening will highlight how our TYA leveraged a model curriculum and Native adult and elder knowledge to create 7 oral history videos on essential understandings about California Indians. The videos will be utilized to increase Native youth’s and K-12 students knowledge of tribes’ sovereignty, diversity, and identity and contributions to civilization.
Panel #6 California Indian Museum and Cultural Center’s Tribal Youth Ambassadors: Revitalizing Traditional Foods Nicole Lim (Pomo), Executive Director, CIMCC Christina Tlatilpa Inong (Nahua & Tlaxcaletc), Program Specialist, CIMCC Jayden Lim (Pomo), TYA Pauline Beltran (Pomo/Lake Miwok), TYA Maleah Espinosa (Navajo/San Idelfonso Pueblo), TYA Brandon Schmidt (Pomo), TYA Maleah Giron (Pomo), TYA
This panel is comprised of the California Indian Museum and Cultural Center’s(CIMCC) executive director and Tribal Youth Ambassadors (TYA) will highlight the themes of hope, resilience, knowledge, and power through their Advancing Cultural Opportunities to Reclaim Nutrition (ACORN) project. The TYA will share how they merged the themes of food sovereignty, cultural revitalization, and health/wellness in their project. TYA will also screen educational videos that highlight some of the following topics: traditional and contemporary nutrition and health, California Indian Historical and Cultural Perspectives, and climate change.
Panel #7 California Tribal Water Videos: Owens Valley and Klamath River Basin Facilitators: Dale Ann Sherman (Yurok Tribe) Marlon Sherman (Oglala Lakota) TBD, Klamath Riverkeeper
We will present two video documentaries about water issues concerning California tribes: Paya: The Water Story of the Paiute and A River Between Us. There will be a short introduction to each video, with discussion time after.
"Paya: The Water Story of the Paiute" (31 minutes) Documents the history of Owens Valley Paiute who constructed and managed 60 miles of intricate irrigation systems for millennia before LA secured its largest source of water through fraud, theft and modern engineering a century ago.
“A River Between Us” (90 minutes) Focuses on the Klamath River tribes’ struggle for justice, where years of bad blood between the local farmers, ranchers, tribes, members of the Tea Party, state politicians and federal government have resulted in contamination of the river and near-destruction of salmon populations.
Panel #8 Something Inside is Broken: A Native American Rock Opera Jack Kohler (Hoopa)
What happens when you combine great storytelling, music, and language preservation into a powerhouse production? For the cast of “Something Inside is Broken”, it means a sold out theater hit and a fall tour. This pre-gold rush era rock opera, based on actual historical events, tells the true and untold story of how Natives were exterminated ‘legally’ under Governor Burnett’s extermination policy, massacred by Captain Fremont and Kit Carson, and enslaved by Johann Sutter. The film highlights relevant modern themes and dehumanizing media practices, while cleverly weaving them into our dark American history. The crazed ambition for gold, the objectification of women, the disregard for minority groups and inhumane treatment of vulnerable populations, the constant destruction of our planet’s resources are alluded to, but it’s not all sadness and social commentary. The musical aspect makes the story easy to digest, sharing wisdom and knowledge through the use of catchy songs and witty and often inappropriate (with a little bit of shock factor) phrases. There’s plenty of room for some elbow poking laughs. The story speaks from a human level, and is told with just the right balance of truth and honesty, hilarity, satire, and optimism for an improved world. A dark musical at its core, “Something Inside is Broken” stays true to the description of what makes this a “Rock Opera.” “Sticking it to the man” is an age-old rock mantra, but this show doesn’t hold back any punches. If a Rock Opera “stuck it to the man,” “Something Inside is Broken” delivers a Muhammed Ali punch to the soul. The orchestration is underscored by electric guitar riffs, hip hop beats, and a bold genre-mixing innovation. The native Nisenan language is present in over half of the 26 songs and arrangements. This Rock Opera is being described as a “Transformational Experience” a “ceremony,” rather than simply a “musical,” a Native American ‘Hamilton’. This show was filmed and edited into a 1hr 50 min video version. It is being used by a college back East to teach about colonialism and manifest destiny in California prior to the gold rush. I would be able to do a q & a after the screening to talk about the production, using the Nisenan language in a musical format, teaching history through stage productions and about manifest destiny and the gold rush in California pertaining to Indian survival.
Panel #9 Goudi’ni Gallery Presents Brittany Britton (Hupa) Gallery Assistant, Humboldt State University
The Goudi’ni Native American Arts Gallery presents (Title TBD) focusing on a multigenerational selection of Indigenous artists with connections to Humboldt State University. (Title TBD) showcases a range of artwork from traditional materials and processes to a furthering of traditional forms and ideas into new media and expressions; ideas foundational to a panel discussion clarifying the artists’ intentions and inspirations. Potential panel participants are Cheryl Tuttle, Wes Crawford and Louisa McCovey, from whom we will gain a perspective on the artists’ influences from an intergenerational standpoint. A deeper discussion into what it means to work as a native artist and the state of native art within the region and the state. A synthesis of these viewpoints will give a deeper insight into the participants’ artistic practices and what we can gain as viewers into their work. The panel participants will be selected from artists in the (Title TBD) exhibition, with a moderator to be determined.
Panel #10 Completing the Circle: A Holistic View of California Basketweaving California Indian Basketweavers Association Moderator: Rebecca Tortes (Cahuilla), MPA, Executive Director, CIBA
Since time immemorial the traditional practice of basket weaving has had a significant role in the lives of many California Indians. The California Indian Basket Weavers Association (CIBA) has taken the responsibility of fostering this tradition by providing support to its weavers by offering several programs including our Annual Basketweavers’ Gathering, Tending the Wild: The Worshop, and our youth program, #awlyeah. CIBA believes that through the practice of basketweaving that we can sustain our culture, empower our communities, impact our environment, and thrive in wellness. It is this balance that keeps our traditions alive and what keeps our next generation engaged. This session will cover presentations by CIBA Board Members as they discuss how they continue to “complete the circle” of basketweaving. Topics covered will include of keeping cultural values in in the art of weaving, empowering community by outreach and workshops to all generation, the impact that pesticides have on our ways of gathering, and how weaving helps to maintain a sense of wellness.
“Cultural Continuity: A Basket and a Basketweavers’ Purpose” Presenter: Alice Lincoln-Cook (Karuk) A basket’s journey of life, is much like our journey through life, beneath it lies a clear story of ensuring survival. Our baskets were used and continue to be used for gathering food and medicine, fishing, cooking. In addition, baby baskets were and continue to be utilized to protect our children, both physically and emotionally. Other styles of baskets were and are used for our ceremonies of healing, celebrations of life, and above all, thanking our creator for the gift of life and all that we have. Today many our baskets are made for gifts or to sell and our weavers support themselves. Alice Lincoln- Cook will present on how she believe’s that each basket has a story to tell, one with a beginning and an end.
“Weaving for Balance and Wellness” Presenter: Donald “Squiggie” Salcedo (Quechan As a California Indian social worker, of the Quechan Nation, Donald Salcedo has firsthand experienced seeing the impact of the traditional practice of basket weaving in relations to therapeutic services. The practice of basket weaving assists California Natives seeking mental health services and therapy by allowing them to utilize a traditional art form that creates a reconnection to culture while building self-esteem. The holistic cultural practice of weaving fosters a community where clients can open up and share similar experiences, it creates another social network for many Native Americans. For many weavers the practice provides an outlet for self-care that maintains a strong sense of balance and wellness. The cultural aspect of weaving empowers the weaver while providing a platform for healing historical trauma related issues.
“The Start of a Weaving Circle in Small Tribal Community and the Introduction of Indigenous Stewardship Methods” Presenter: Carrie Garcia (Luiseno/Cahuilla) Carrie Garcia serves as the current Chairwoman for CIBA and is the current Cultural Program Manager for her Tribe, the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians. In 2008 Carrie started a small weaving circle on her reservation. In time this weekly weaving circle grew more cultural programs for her tribal community. These programs include an annual basketweavers gathering, collaborative classes with Noli Indian School's Cultural Classes and the creation of the Traditional Land Resource Management Program. All programs were inspired by her work with the California Indian Basketweavers Association. Ms. Garcia will present on how this community weaving circle created the need for a place to gathering traditional plant materials. In 2012, while working in collaboration with the local school on her reservations Ms. Garcia launched the first formal effort to rehabilitate portions of the canyons natural resources. In addition she will present on how her work with basketry created the need for a program that implements an Indigenous land resource management model that prioritized the revitalization of historical ecosystems and the renewal of cultural landscapes into the tribe's traditional use areas. By creating these programs she has seen her tribal community embrace a cultural revival and has witnessed a more positive personal change in many of those who have participated in these programs.
“Understanding Indigenous Land Management, Traditions and Present-Day Struggles” Presenter: Diania Caudell (Luiseno – San Luis Rey Band of Mission Indians) Baskets are more than artistically expressed products; they are an embodiment of the relationship that indigenous peoples have within their families and their environment. California basketweavers rely on access to public and tribal lands and traditional gathering sites in order to gather basketry materials. Basket weavers, who are among the most vulnerable members of our population, have a disproportionate burden of pesticide exposure. Diania Caudell will present on her work with CIBA in addition and with the Tribal Pesticides Program Council(TPPC) a part of the EPA Agency with members from tribes throughout Indian Country who are concerned about pesticides’ negative effect the environment and especially on traditional native plants. Diana will present on how to be aware of plants that may have been sprayed with pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, and how to protect yourself and others of the harmful effects.
Panel #11 California History Curriculum: Indigenous History in the Classroom Gregg Castro (t’rowt’raahl Salinan/rumsien Ohlone) Dr. Beverly Ortiz, Ethnographer
This is a “roundtable” community discussion on the current status of efforts to provide actual working curriculum, fitting the framework of the new CA Social Science criteria for K-12 classrooms. Efforts are mainly but not solely for 3rd & 4th grade instruction. The goal is presentation of California History that reflects native community experience, knowledge and impacts. Current examples of native vetted curriculum (both written and consulted) will be discussed by various activists and allies working in the field, including participants in the California Indian History Curriculum Coalition, currently based out of CSU – Sacramento.
Panel #12 We Are the River: Connecting River Health to Community Health Marlon Sherman Louisa McCovey Konrad Fisher Dale Ann Sherman
The damming, diverting and polluting of rivers undermines the foundation of many Indigenous cultures and livelihoods. Over the last 150 years, rivers of the Western U.S. have not been treated with much reverence, and Indigenous communities are paying with their health. Panelists will discuss the social, economic and psychological effects that impaired waterways have on the Indigenous communities of the Klamath River Basin and beyond. Panelists will also discuss how community members can engage in, and improve key policy and decision-making processes that impact river health. Panelists will draw upon Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Western Science, policy expertise and personal experiences to demonstrate how the loss of access to traditional food sources, combined with barriers to the maintenance of cultural tradition have impacted the health and wellness of tribal members and how mental and community health (addiction, depression, diabetes, suicide, etc...) are directly linked to the health of rivers and watersheds.
Panel #13 Healing the Wounds of the Generations: Words as Ways to Healing Carolyn M. Dunn, PhD (Cherokee/Muskogee Creek/Choctaw) Kristy Orona, MA (Taos Pueblo/Raramuri)
Words have the power to hurt as well as heal. Colonization has taught indigenous people to use words as weapons. In this 90 minute interactive panel and workshop, award winning authors/educators Carolyn Dunn (1986) and Kristy Orona (1997), both ITEPP grads and HSU alumni, share tools for using the language of colonization to heal the wounds inflicted upon us and the wounds we inflict upon each other. Participants will need journals and writing implements (pens/pencils) for participation. Carolyn M. Dunn received her PhD from USC in American Studies and Ethnicity, and MA in American Indian Studies from UCLA, and her BA from Humboldt State. An ITEPP grad, she is the author of three books of poetry, Outfoxing Coyote, Echolocation, and The Stains of Burden and Dumb Luck. Her plays Ghost Dance and The Frybread Queen have been staged by Native Voices at the Autry, the La Jolla Playhouse, and Safe Harbors at LaMama Theater in New York. Kristy Orona holds an MA in Educational Leadership from Azusa Pacific University and graduated from ITEPP in 1997. She is the author of the children’s book Kiki’s Journey and the poetry collection Reclamation Road.
Panel #14 California/American Indian Visibility, Activism, and Experience at CSU Long Beach Chair: Dr. Theresa Gregor (Kumeyaay/Yoeme), Assistant Professor, Program in American Indian Studies, CSULB
“California Indians and Recognition in Social, Culture, and Political Spaces” Presenter: Mitzla Aguilera (Tongva/Mexica) will discuss the struggle and negotiation of identity, education, visibility, and community activism of non-federally recognized California Indian students at a California public university.
“AB-30 is not enough!: University Mascots as Symbols of Genocide” Presenter: Ashley Glenesk (Metis) will discuss the use of a gold rush era mascot at a California public university, the impact it has on its students and the need for legislation that goes further than AB-30.
“A Fight to Indigenize Higher Education” Presenter: Angelique Magdaleno will discuss the obstacles faced as an indigenous person in an Anthropology M.A. graduate program and the fight to indigenize higher education in the 21st century.
“Recognition and Repatriation: Cal State Long Beach, Puvungna, and Service to Non-Federally Recognized Tribes” Presenter: Heidi Lucero (Acjachemen/Mutsun Ohlone) will discuss her work with NAGPRA and its implementation to repatriate ancestors and cultural and associated funerary objects for non- federally recognized tribes. She will share the successful repatriation of ancestors and cultural objects at CSULB as a model.
Panel #15 Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) Gatekeeper Training Eric Ruiz Alissa Leigh Suicide Prevention Specialists, Ko’l Ho Koom’ Mo (Working Together) Youth Suicide Prevention Project at United Indian Health Services, Inc.
QPR is an evidence-based approach to confronting someone about their possible thoughts of suicide. Participants will learn 3 simple steps that they can use to help save a life from suicide. Participants will also learn about the impact of historical and intergenerational trauma on American Indians and safe-gun keeping related to suicide prevention. During this training participants will become QPR-trained Gatekeepers who will be able to: • Recognize the warning signs of a suicide crisis • Know how to offer hope • And save a life.
Panel #16 Collaboration between Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation, Elk Valley Rancheria, and Redwood National and State Parks: Incorporating Tribal Expertise, Experience and Perspectives into Management of Cultural and Natural Resources
This presentation will focus on partnering and collaborative efforts between Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP), Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation (TDN), and Elk Valley Rancheria (EVR). TDN and EVR tribal ancestral territories comprise a large percentage of the parks. Tribal knowledge derived over thousands of years is a logical component and added value for collaborative park management. Collaboration between these entities has flourished over the years through continual development of mutual trust, respect, cultural interests, friendships, willingness to work together, and good communication and interactions at the individual and governmental levels. Collaboration has also succeeded due to the need and desire to integrate tribal expertise, experience and perspectives into management of RNSP cultural and natural resources. This collaboration in particular has succeeded because individuals from these groups have fun working and learning together. Examples of successful collaboration provided in this presentation include projects to protect and stabilize a coastal Tolowa village site, combined efforts to document and restore Tolowa ancestral landscapes, organization of joint workshops, Tolowa contributions interpretive panels and park information, and planning for future workshops and joint projects. This presentation will illustrate how all people, resources and cultural expressions benefit when tribal partnering occurs and when tribal voices and direct interactions are incorporated into managing federal and state lands with Native American connections.
Panel #17 Mixed Panel Session
"Surviving America: He did it with a laugh, Humor in the Indian world" Presenter; Rose Ramirez Robert Freeman, a renowned American Indian Artist and Californian, was the creator of the first Indian humor comic and joke books.
"Basket weavers in Action" Presenters: Julia & Lucy Parker
Panel #18 Government-to- Government Agreements at Redwood National and State Parks: How the Yurok Tribe and Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation are using these agreements with the National Park
The Yurok Tribe and Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation are continually seeking greater inclusion and decision making in how natural and cultural resources and programs are administered at Redwood National and State Parks in Humboldt and Del Norte Counties, California, because these are their ancestral homelands. The parks are administered under a collaborative management agreement between the National Park Service (NPS) and California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR). Both Tribes have entered into respective General Agreements with the NPS and CDPR that outline how the government-to-government relationships among the parties should function. These agreements are heavily relied upon by the Tribes and agencies for communication protocols and for addressing the issues that matter most to them. In addition, these agreements have or will lead to Annual Funding Agreements under the Self Determination and Education Assistance Act. AFAs allow the NPS to transfer funds to the Tribes for specific programs and functions. This panel will include agency representatives, respective Directors of the Office of Self Governance, and if available Council members. We will discuss some of the successes and challenges in developing and using such agreements, and provide examples for how they are being used.
Presentation #1 Examining Tribal Relationships in Higher Education Theresa Ambo, Ph.D. (Luiseno/Tongva/Tohono O’odham) UC President’s Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Diego
Notable efforts have been made recently by colleges and universities nationwide, and globally, to be more inclusive and engage local Indigenous communities. However, these efforts are not universally practiced across institutions. In fact, most post-secondary institutions face significant limitations in knowing the necessary steps to foster tribal-institutional partnerships and relationships. California presents a compelling case on tribal engagement, given the number of federally and non-federally recognized tribes, prior financial divestments from public education by the state, and privatization and growing dependence of college and universities on external donors (i.e. monetary tribal partnerships). To broaden the discussion on tribal-institutional relationships, this paper offers a summary of findings from a multiple-case study examining the nature of formal and informal tribal-institutional relationships between public land-grant universities and local federally and non-federally recognized tribes in California, which will be offered through a sharing of perspectives from tribal and institutional representatives.
Presentation #2 Efforts To Rehabilitate And Restore Traditional Subsistence Fish Populations In The Klamath River Basin To Resolve Tribal Food Scarcity And Security Issues Keith Parker (Yurok tribal member, Hupa, Karuk, Tolowa) Graduate Researcher, HSU
The Klamath River Basin is well-known for its runs of anadromous chinook and coho salmon, green and white sturgeon, Pacific lamprey “eel”, and steelhead, among others. Many species are considered threatened/endangered, causing large-scale food scarcity and security issues for Native Americans. The Klamath River supports the highest diversity of lamprey species in the world (n=5) but populations have declined by several orders of magnitude. Ecologically, Pacific lamprey are important contributors of essential biomass of marine-derived micro-nutrients and organic matter to the food web of headwater streams, a primary food source for over fifteen species, and buffer migrating salmon from predation by marine mammals. Culturally, Pacific lamprey provide high caloric value (2-3x salmon) to the Yurok, Hupa, Karuk, and other Tribes when other foods are unavailable during winter. Language, ceremony, culture, and food sources evolved synchronously and therefore the loss of traditional foods impacts the Klamath Basin people with adverse health, social, economic, and spiritual effects. Herein, we discuss Klamath Basin lamprey conservation genetics and TEK work. Our recent phenotype-genotype association study (graduate thesis) identified two genetically distinct ecotypes which we have named ke’ween and tewol (Yurok language), in recognition of the importance of Pacific lamprey to Pacific Northwest fishing tribes.
Presentation #3 What’s in a Name?: An Examination of Historians’ Reluctance to Use the Word Slavery in the Context of California Indian Genocide Staphanie Lumsden
Several historians who focus on California Indian history have published about the genocide which made the development of the state of California possible. The mission system in southern California as well as the gold rush in northern California were eras of apocalyptic violence deliberately enacted by settlers seeking to dispossess Native peoples of their land and labor. The exploitation of Native peoples’ labor was essential to the colonial project and was forcibly obtained by settlers. Indian labor remains a topic that invigorates historical inquiry. However, the language that historians have most frequently deployed around Indian labor falls short of slavery; instead relying on words such as indenture, apprenticeship, concubinage, and custodianship. The goal of this paper is to examine the language used by historians around California Indian slavery and taking stock of the political stakes. What is there to lose by using the language of slavery when we write about California Indians? What is there to gain?
Presentation #4 Making Theater with CA NDN Communities Kenny Ramos, Barona Band of Mission Indians (Diegueño Iipay/Kuymeyaay) UCLA Alumnus, BA American Indian Studies Resident Artist, Native Voices at the Autry
This presentation will analyze the methodologies and outcomes of several theatrical projects developed over the past 3 years in collaboration with tribal communities across California. Specifically examining Cornerstone Theater Company’s Urban Rez in Los Angeles, CA in 2016, On Native Ground’s “Something Inside is Broken” in Sacramento, CA in 2016, and Dancing Earth’s “500 Years of Resistance” in San Francisco, CA in 2017, as well as the work of Native Voices at the Autry, the country’s premier professional American Indian theater company located in Los Angeles, CA, I hope to highlight strengths and challenges in each organization’s approach in collaborating with community and discuss the potential role theater can play in building tribal nations and increasing visibility for our communities in the dominant society.
Presentation #5 Native Connections: Community Collaborations Promoting Youth Resilience Cara Owings (Tolowa Dee-ni' Nation)
Native Connections is a SAMHSA funded project at United Indian Health Services headquartered in Arcata, CA. The goals of this project is to; Increase capacity within agency relationship building, Promote community awareness regarding mental health issues impacting Native Youth, Cultural resilience activities for local Native Youth, and Provide trainings to service agencies in Youth Mental Health First Aid, Historical Trauma and Cultural Resiliency, and safeTALK for Suicide Prevention. By using community collected data, this project also implemented activities focused on increasing the community readiness in embracing policies, protocols, and procedures regarding Youth suicide and substance abuse prevention activities.
Presentation #6 From Gold Rush to Green Rush: Illegal Marijuana Cultivation on Yurok Tribal Lands Kaitlin Reed (Yurok Tribe) University of California, Davis
Yurok tribal lands are currently under siege by illicit marijuana production. Illegal water diversions associated with marijuana production are running our streams dry; water quality has been dramatically degraded by chemical pollution and human waste. Traditional gatherers and basket weavers face threats, physical violence, and intimidation from marijuana growers. Our wildlife is dying at rapid rates from intentional poisoning and chemicals left behind at abandoned grow sites. I argue that the surge in marijuana production – dubbed the Green Rush – is a direct legacy of the Gold Rush in northwestern California. For Yurok – and other indigenous groups of California – the Gold Rush was an apocalypse, resulting in widespread genocide and ecocide. The Yurok Tribe, however, has been active in resisting the Green Rush. Beginning in 2014, ‘Operation Yurok’ – a collaborative effort between the Tribe, and county, state, and federal government entities – have eradicated thousands of plants.
Presentation #7 Healing with a Vengeance: The Kumeyaay Creation Story, the Incest Taboo, and Potential Lessons for Recovering Female Empowerment. Dr. Theresa Gregor (Kumeyaay/Yoeme) Assistant Professor, Program in American Indian Studies, CSULB
In several Kumeyaay creation stories, there are cautionary tales about transgressions, including sexual transgressions like the incest taboo. In one version of the story told often by cultural and language educator Stan Rodriguez of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, the Creator touches Frog Woman’s genitalia inappropriately, which understandably upsets her. Because of the Creator’s transgression, Frog Woman poisons and kills him. In this telling, the details and consequences of Frog Woman’s molestation are bypassed to instead focus on the ending of the story, which teaches the People how to prepare for the Creator’s funeral, a ritual that is reproduced for many Kumeyaay today. This paper focuses instead on restor(y)ing the elision of Frog Woman’s violation, to situate her retaliation and vengeance within a discourse about female empowerment through healing with a vengeance to teach lessons applicable to Kumeyaay today to prevent the assault of the female body.
Presentation #8 Tracing Karuk Perspectives of Basketry in Museums Carolyn Smith (Karuk) Department of Anthropology University of California, Berkeley
Karuk baskets carry the weight of history, vitality, loss, and spiritual connection to the land from which Karuk peoples came into being. Baskets hold knowledge about the world, how to live right within the world, and how to steward the world in which they and their weavers are a part. Baskets are made with intention, and through the intention of the weaver, they emerge transformed: from the liveliness of plant materials from which they are made, to the animacy of living beings who need to participate in Karuk everyday and ceremonial life. Through archive and museum-collection based research and interviews, this presentation traces ways in which Karuk peoples envisage basket collections in museums during three distinct moments in time: 1920s, 1930s-1980s, and 1990 to present.
Presentation #9 Using environmental DNA to detect Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in water samples in Northern California Ely Boone Department of Fisheries Biology Humboldt State University The Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, is one of the most broadly distributed freshwater fish in western North America and as such, the Pacific Lamprey is found in many Pacific streams. The habitat of the Pacific Lamprey is thought to be that of larger tributaries and excludes smaller coastal streams. Other research has supported this hypothesis in that samplers did not find Pacific Lamprey in the smaller coastal rivers when trying to detect them. In older sampling methods, a non-detection did not necessarily mean that the specimen was not there, but rather that the specimen was not detected. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a modern detection technique that is more sensitive than traditional sampling methods and has a higher probability of detection than traditional methods. By using eDNA, and the higher detection probability of eDNA, to compare large watersheds to smaller coastal rivers, the modern sampling technique has provided even more supporting evidence to the hypothesis that Pacific Lamprey in Northern California only utilize large tributaries for spawning. In this research, sampling took place in streams in Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino counties. Sampled tributaries include: Tillas Slough, Klamath River, Redwood, Stone Lagoon, Big Lagoon, Little River, Mad River, Freshwater, Elk River, Salt River, Noyo River, and Big River. At each sample location, multiple samples were taken at each site from predetermined locations. The samples were taken using sterile whirlpaks. The whirlpaks were then filtered through a 3 micron polyethylene filter. After filtration, the DNA was extracted using Qiagen Dneasy extraction kit. Lastly, the DNA were prepped for qPCR using Pacific Lamprey-specific assay and the qPCR was conducted to test for the detection of Pacific Lamprey in the twelve sampled streams.
Presentation #10 Where Our Ancestors Lie Buried Jonathan N. Kunkel (Texas Band of Yaqui Indians member, descendant of ancestors on the California Yaqui Indian Rolls of the TBYI)
Lios em chaniavu, hello! For the past three years, I have been working on a historical documentation on my Hiak Kawi (Mountain Yaqui) ancestors’ band of Indians who lived as a historic tribal group of people in the mountainous back country of San Diego County, in southern California. This project draws from oral stories, archival documents, and material artifacts to describe the historical presence of Yaqui Indians in Southern California and seeks to understand who we are as contemporary California Yaqui people in relationship to other California Indian communities. No one knows exactly when the Yaqui first arrived and settled in present day southern California but archaeological evidence shows that pre-historic Hiaki (ancient Yaquis) may have journeyed to and possibly inhabited the Anza-Borrego area dating back to the Late Period (post 1,000 AD) with additional historical records demonstrating Yaqui occupancy in the Anza-Borrego area in the 1830's. During the peak of the Yaqui Indian Wars in the 1880’s, thousands of Yaquis were being deported, enslaved and killed by the Mexican Government in Sonora, Mexico causing thousands of Yaquis to leave their homelands of Sonora and migrate to the U.S. portion of our people's northern aboriginal boundaries, which included California. While bands of Yaqui Indians in Arizona and Texas have earned recognition, my family’s band of California Yaqui Indians has not yet been recognized. This is due primarily to the persecution of our people on both sides of the international Mexican and U.S. border that crosses through our peoples’ sacred and traditional Sonoran Desert homeland, Hiakim, which caused our Mountain Yaqui ancestors had to hide their “Indian” identities from local, state, and government authorities in fear of being killed on identification of being Yaqui Indians or being deported to Mexico to be enslaved and or murdered. I have spent the past three years using oral family stories, photographs, and names to recover my family’s history from generations of silence and assimilation. I hope to use this documentation to educate others on who we truly are as Hiak Kawi people. My family and I hope to restore, preserve, and revitalize our Yaqui language, culture, traditions, history, and identity as California Yaqui people with this project, which begins with our creation story and goes into pre-historic accounts of our people, continues to our people's first non-native contact, onto the Spanish Mission era, the Mexican era, and the U.S. era to who we are as of today. Chiokoe Uttesia, thank you!
Presentation #11 Tears of the Creator: The Need to Become Autonomous Marlon Sherman (Oglala Lakota) Professor and Chair, Native American Studies Department Humboldt State University
This presentation examines the contradictory principles of United States law, with an emphasis on Klamath River issues, and points to a need for cooperative autonomy. Cooperative autonomy is a concept that carries tribal sovereignty a bit further than people are doing these days. Indigenous Peoples in other countries have made significant progress toward recognition of Grandmother Earth and their sacred waters.Why haven’t we been able to do that in the United States? Why are people continuing to build pipelines across our lands and rivers? One, because of the conflicting and contradictory nature of US laws concerning Native Peoples. Two, because of the unwillingness of tribes and individuals to act outside the system of US laws. Indigenous Peoples in the United States must decide whether they are sovereign nations or incompetent wards of the government.
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